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Apa citation online article with author but no date

APA Citation Style, Seventh Edition: Webpages with No Date,Section 10.16

 · References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day [if known]). Title of webpage. Site Name. https://URL OR Retrieved Month Day, Year, from  · If there is no author, the article title comes first. If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d. It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval. United Arab  · Journal or magazine article (from library database or online) with no author. Proper Bibliographic Reference Format: Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented  · When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” (“no date”) in all citations. If an online source is likely to change over time, it  · Book with no date. In-text citation template and example: If you cite a book without a date, use “n.d.” in place of the year. Narrative: Author Surname (Publication Year) Cohen ... read more

The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Important Note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets. APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces e. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references.

If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Including the retrieval date for these sources indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different than what was originally used. Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources.

For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Price, D. Laziness does not exist. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims. If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited.

Title of page. Year, Month Date. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL. Tuscan white bean pasta. Author or Group name. Site name if applicable. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Mental health conditions. APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works.

Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages. Title of article. In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page. Quantum mechanics. Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time.

Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier DOI , when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with doi. org's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page.

APA 7 also advises writers to include a DOI if available , even when using the print source. Lastname, F. Title of Periodical, Vol. Issue , page numbers. Drollinger, T. Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale.

If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation like ERIC or that are only available on that particular database like UpToDate.

Note that retrieval dates are required for unarchived sources that are likely, or intended, to change over time. Perreault, L.

Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. APA 7 th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts. However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name.

If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source. Note: The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper. If the source does come from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper. Title of Publication.

Richards, C. Best music of Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post. On the other hand, if the source doesn't come from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.

Name of publishing website. Jones, J. Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book.

However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook. Title of book [eBook edition]. Title of book N. Narrator, Narr. URL if applicable. Title of dissertation or thesis Publication No. Database Name. Duis, J. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date like in the example below.

Institution or organization name. Title of entry. In Title of reference work. In Merriam-Webster. com dictionary. Lastname ed. URL or DOI. Martin, M. McNeely Eds , Encyclopedia of big data. Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step. or Name of Group Year. Title of dataset Version No. Log in Social login does not work in incognito and private browsers. Please log in with your username or email to continue. wikiHow Account. No account yet?

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By using our site, you agree to our cookie policy. Cookie Settings. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Categories Education and Communications College University and Postgraduate Academic Writing Citation How to Cite a Web Site in APA With No Author, Date, or Page Number.

Download Article Explore this Article methods. Ask a Question. Tips and Warnings. Related Articles. Article Summary. Co-authored by Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA Last Updated: April 12, Method 1. Use the title in place of the author if there's no author at all.

Write out the full title of the work if you're citing it within the sentence. If you are using a parenthetical citation only, use the first words of the title. Treat an organization as the author if they published the website. You can find reliable information from groups and organizations, but they don't always list an author. If this is the case, you can cite the organization as the author since they published the information.

If no author is listed, you can use the organization instead. Your in-text citations could look like this: "According to the American Cancer Society , people undergoing chemotherapy benefit from having complimentary head wraps or wigs available.

Include "Anonymous" as an author if it's on the website. You might come across a website page that lists an anonymous author. If this is the case, you can use "Anonymous" as the author in your citation.

Use "n. APA citations usually include the author and date. However, you can't include a date if one isn't there! Using "n. Include the paragraph to cite a specific passage if there's no page. APA formatting only requires a page number when you need to cite specific words or a close paraphrase or summary of a particular section.

When a website doesn't have page numbers, you can use the paragraph number instead. Count the paragraphs to figure out which paragraph you are citing. Then, write "para. For example, let's say you're citing the 4th paragraph of an article called, "Building a Healthy Relationship," which has no author, page number, or date.

You could cite it like this: "According to "Building a Healthy Relationship" n. Use words of the section heading as the page number if available. Section headings or subheadings are a great way to tell readers where to find the information you're citing. You can use these headings instead of the paragraph number if there are no page numbers. If the page you're on has marked headings, use those in place of a page number to cite a specific area where you found the information you're citing.

Your citation might look like this: " "Reducing," n. Method 2. List the title of the article first if no author is listed. Only capitalize the first word, words that come after a colon, and proper nouns. Don't put quotation marks around the title. Put a period after the title. Write n. for "no date" in parentheses after the title. This tells the reader that no date was included.

Use lowercase letters and include a period after the "n" and "d.

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Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual i. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Important Note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets. APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces e. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.

Including the retrieval date for these sources indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different than what was originally used. Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources. For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Price, D. Laziness does not exist. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims. If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited.

Title of page. Year, Month Date. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL. Tuscan white bean pasta. Author or Group name. Site name if applicable. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Mental health conditions. APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works. Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.

Title of article. In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page. Quantum mechanics. Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time.

Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier DOI , when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles.

They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with doi. org's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page. APA 7 also advises writers to include a DOI if available , even when using the print source.

Lastname, F. Title of Periodical, Vol. Issue , page numbers. Drollinger, T. Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL.

If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation like ERIC or that are only available on that particular database like UpToDate.

Note that retrieval dates are required for unarchived sources that are likely, or intended, to change over time. Perreault, L. Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. APA 7 th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts.

However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source. Note: The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper.

If the source does come from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper. Title of Publication. Richards, C. Best music of Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America.

Washington Post. On the other hand, if the source doesn't come from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted. Name of publishing website. Jones, J. Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book.

However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook. Title of book [eBook edition]. Title of book N. Narrator, Narr. URL if applicable. Title of dissertation or thesis Publication No.

Database Name. Duis, J. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date like in the example below. Institution or organization name. Title of entry. In Title of reference work. In Merriam-Webster. com dictionary. Lastname ed. URL or DOI. Martin, M. McNeely Eds , Encyclopedia of big data.

Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step. or Name of Group Year.

Title of dataset Version No. DOI or URL. Grantmakers in the Arts. Arts funding trends, United States, present ICPSR [Data set]. Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title.

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 · Book with no date. In-text citation template and example: If you cite a book without a date, use “n.d.” in place of the year. Narrative: Author Surname (Publication Year) Cohen  · Journal or magazine article (from library database or online) with no author. Proper Bibliographic Reference Format: Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented  · References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day [if known]). Title of webpage. Site Name. https://URL OR Retrieved Month Day, Year, from  · Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author. Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and  · When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” (“no date”) in all citations. If an online source is likely to change over time, it  · If there is no author, the article title comes first. If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d. It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval. United Arab ... read more

Still have questions? How to cite a brochure in APA Style. If the page you're on has marked headings, use those in place of a page number to cite a specific area where you found the information you're citing. For titles of journals or magazines, use italics and "headline" style capitalization. Sea Life. P83 Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise.

On This Apa citation online article with author but no date No Author No Date No Page Numbers No Title No Database Name. For example, the title 5 ways to succeed in business would be alphabetized under F as if it had started with the word Five. APA Style usually does not require an access date. Jack Caulfield Jack is a Brit based in Amsterdam, with an MA in comparative literature. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source. How to cite a website in APA Style. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by American Psychological Association Call Number: BF

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